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Saturday, November 30, 2013

Dantourism


murales of the 1970s
Just back from a trip in the charming Medieval and Baroque hill town of Calvi dell'Umbria, some 2,000 inhabitants, for a presentation of the book Dante era uno scrittore fantasy (also available in English: Dante Was a Fantasy Writer). It's been a great success: old people in small towns are often so nice and lively! Besides, Calvi is near Narni, that suggested the name "Narnia" to CS Lewis, with really 'magic' landscapes and buildings; unfortunately there was no opportunity to take a good picture while crossing it in a hurry.

Friday, November 29, 2013

She, Armida (16)

[5: 45, Armida speaks to Godfrey]

Figlia io son di Arbilan, che 'l regno tenne
Di Maraclea, e voi tutti accolse e i vostri;
Ma del suocero suo gli stati ottenne
Ne la Fenicia, e d'or ricco fu e d'ostri.
Con la sua morte il nascer mio prevenne
Mia madre, ascesa a gli stellanti chiostri:
E giunse invidïosa empia fortuna
La sua tomba, in un giorno, e la mia cuna.

"I am the daughter of Arbilan, who ruled the city of Maraclea and welcomed all of you and your soldiers; he also got the territories of his father-in-law in Phoenicia, and he was rich with gold and purple. My mother, who has by now ascended to the starry courts, died just before my birth: the evil-eyed, ungodly Fortune united her grave and my cradle on the very same day."


Notes
Verse 3 actually begins with "Ma," literally: "But." Tasso often uses it in the sense of the Greek , that can be rendered as "on the other hand, to be sure, indeed," or simply "and." Here it has been translated as "he also."
"Starry courts": literally "starry cloisters," but the latter word has a general meaning. Tasso used the phrase "stellanti chiostri" in his long poem Il Mondo Creato too.
"Evil-eyed" translates "invidiosa," literally "envious," but it must be interpreted in the etymological sense Dante gave to the word: invidiosa, from Latin in-videre, "to see something/someone negatively."

by Selkis

Some more comments on this: see next Tuesday (Dec. 3). 

Wednesday, November 27, 2013

Monday, November 25, 2013

She, Armida (15)

Armida plays on the double meaning of such words as "fé" ("fede" in current Italian) that can refer either to trusting a man or having faith in God, and "preghi" ("preghiere") indicating either pleas or prayers. On the other hand, the link between anthropological trust and religious faith had been clearly stated by St. Augustine.

The phrase "preghi honesti," honest plea, echoes Dante, see e.g. Inferno 2: 113 ("parlare onesto") and Purgatorio 23: 88 ("prieghi devoti"). And especially, Tasso takes from Dante the daring move of calling the Christian God "Jove," see Purgatorio 6: 118, even directly referring to Jesus Christ with the shocking words "crucified Jove." Dante's and Tasso's beloved poet Virgil would faint at that.

Sunday, November 24, 2013

Sunday Guest: Trumpkin


From: CS Lewis' Prince Caspian (The Chronicles of Narnia)

The quote: "Oh, I'm a dangerous criminal, I am," said the Dwarf cheerfully. "But that's a long story. Meantime, I was wondering if perhaps you were going to ask me to breakfast? You've no idea what an appetite it gives one, being executed."

The anniversary: The day before yesterday, Nov. 22, it was exactly 50 years after Lewis' death. But of course the world had a more tragic 50th anniversary to remember.

Saturday, November 23, 2013

She, Armida (14)

[5: 44, Armida speaks to Godfrey]

Ma se la nostra fé varia ti move
A disprezzar forse i miei preghi honesti,
La fé c'ho certa in tua pietà mi giove;
Né dritto par ch'ella delusa hor resti.
Testimonio è quel Dio ch'a tutti è Giove
Ch'altrui più giusta aita unqua non desti.
Ma perché il tutto sappi, intento hor odi
Le mie sventure e l'altrui inique frodi.

"But if the difference between our faiths makes you perhaps despise my honest plea, may my firm trust in your pity benefit me -- nor does it seem right that it be frustrated. Witness is that God who is the Jove of all that you never helped anyone more rightly than me. But in order to know everything about it, please listen to the story of my misfortunes and my enemy's unjust frauds."

Friday, November 22, 2013

She, Armida (13)

In lying to Godfrey, Armida makes ironic reference to the truth when she says that she was born far from the main river in his homeland . . .  but anyway born in a river, she implies. The daughter of a mermaid, therefore a half-non-human creature.

In fact, this verse was different in Gerusalemme Liberata 4: 40. There Armida said, "I, who was born in such a different faith [religion], the one you humbled and are now trying to crush." In Gerusalemme Conquistata she avoids mentioning the "clash of civilizations." She indeed will express very interesting ecumenical concepts, though just as a captatio benevolentiae. An attempt at interfaith dialogue had already been made by the two Muslim ambassadors Aletes and Argantes, though just for political purposes. Examples of a true respect between people belonging to different religions will appear elsewhere in the poem.

Thursday, November 21, 2013

She, Armida (12)

[5: 42]

Armida is lead in the presence of Godfrey of Bouillon, and she 'explains' to him why she has come to the Christian camp, in spite of her (fictionally) being a Muslim:

Et io, che nacqui in sì diversa fede,
Lunge da l'acque del tuo Reno algenti,
Per te spero acquistar la nobil sede
E lo scettro, signor, de' miei parenti.
E s'altri aita a' tuoi congiunti hor chiede
Contra il furor de le straniere genti,
Io poi ch'in lor non ha pietà più loco,
Contra il mio sangue il ferro hostile invoco.

"So I, who was born in such a different faith
And far from the cold waters of your Rhine,
Hope you will help me regain the noble seat
Together with my parents' scepter, O Lord.
Others asked your comrades for help
Against the wrath of a foreign people;
I, since no room has been left there to pity,
Call enemy swords against my own blood."


Notes
In current Italian "parenti" means "relatives," but here - as well as in Dante - the term still keeps its original Latin meaning of parentes, i.e. "parents" like in English.

Wednesday, November 20, 2013

She, Armida (11)

The image of a sunbeam passing through water without damaging it echoes some sublime verses by Dante, Paradiso 2: 35-36. But especially, in Medieval and Renaissance art, that image was used to symbolize Mary's virginal conception of Christ. The 'bigoted' Tasso could be quite blasphemous when he felt like doing so.

A minor detail is the rhyme between "parte" as a verb (meaning "[it] divides") and "parte" as a noun (meaning "part"). A solution often adopted by Tasso, unlike Dante and Ariosto. This may be due, in "part" at least, to the fact that he probably wrote a lot of verses in a hurry, then reworked and polished them up, but modifying a rhyme was more difficult than changing a word or two inside a verse.

Tuesday, November 19, 2013

She, Armida (10)

[5: 34]

Come per acqua o per christallo intero
Trapassa il raggio e no 'l divide o parte,
Per entro il chiuso manto osa il pensiero
Di penetrar ne la vietata parte;
Ivi si spatia, ivi contempla il vero
Di tante meraviglie a parte a parte;
Poscia al desio le forma e le descrive,
E fa più le sue fiamme ardenti e vive.

As through the water or a whole crystal
The sunbeam passes and doesn't break it,
Here men's thought dares penetrate her
Closed wrapping to reach her forbidden parts;
There it sweeps, there it admires the truth
Of so many marvels, part to part;

Then it shapes and describes them according to
One's will, and makes its flames livelier.

Monday, November 18, 2013

She, Armida (9)

[5: 33]

Mostra il bel petto le sue nevi ignude,
Onde il foco d'amor si nutre e desta;
Parte appar de le mamme acerbe e crude,
Parte altrui ne ricopre invida vesta,
Invida agli occhi soli il passo chiude:
L'amoroso pensier già non s'arresta
Ché, non ben pago di bellezza esterna,
Negli occulti secreti anchor s'interna.

Her beautiful top shows its bare snow,
Feeding and triggering the fire of love;
Her young, unripe breasts partly appear,
Partly are covered by her jealous dress --
Jealous, but it can impede the eyes only,
For the loving thought does not stop
And, unsatisfied with external beauty,
Penetrates the most hidden secrets.

Sunday, November 17, 2013

Sunday Guest: King Kong


Edgar Wallace's 1932 novel King Kong is an interesting reboot of Milton's Paradise Lost. Here are a Man and a Woman in a 'virgin' land, a no-man's-before land. And the more the story proceeds, the more the protagonists are in love with each other, and 'innocently' naked, the girl especially.

Analogies are much less interesting than differences, though. This "paradise" is a nightmarish place full of ancient monsters, not only outdated dinosaurs like in the movie version (and nobody wanting to show them in a Park!!), but also fantasy creatures like giant spiders and walking octopuses. And they all, Kong included, are termed "Nature's mistakes." But especially, in KK the 'alien' invader is not the 'dark monster,' but right the other way round: Kong is attacked and finally destroyed by humankind, and the protagonists are all too happy to leave a would-be paradise that, in fact, is a Skull Island.

The 'just' 6-meter tall Kong is ape-like, he 'looks like' a gorilla, but he is not a gorilla. There may be a reference to the giants mentioned in the Book of Numbers 13: 33, with a parallelism between the Promised Land and Eden. Another of Kong's interesting features is that - so to speak - he is "without mother, without father" like the Messiah in the Letter to the Hebrews. How much time has he been there? How is he going to perpetuate himself? In the text, he is simply "there," like the Serpent in Genesis 3. And a genetic exchange with the blond, beautiful Ann Darrow looks unlikely.

In brief, Kong may be a symbol of Satan (and Hitler in those years, or  vice versa, the menace of Communism, etc. etc., blah blah) but it would possibly work better to see him as the male version of Lilith, i.e. an Anti-Adam. And/or the specimen of an old, cursed humanity like Beowulf's Grendel, with swamps and all.

As for the other happy findings from a bookstall, the 1974 anthology Creature note e ignote [Known and Unknown Critters] includes: G. M. Glaskin, The Inheritors; Paul Ernst, Nothing Happens on the Moon; Sterling E. Lanier, And the Voice of the Turtle; Thomas M. Disch, Nada; Dean R. Koontz, The Mystery of His Flesh. Jack Finney's The Body-Snatchers is a classic, but the true revelation is the post-apocalyptic, post-human Second Ending by James White, 1963. All three Urania books are very well translated; while the quality of this Italian version of King Kong is irregular, unfortunately.

Next Sunday it will be up to the second episode of the Chronicles of Narnia, Prince Caspian.

Saturday, November 16, 2013

Torquato Tasso: The Legacy




Frank Tieri (story), Mark Texeira (art), Space Punisher; US edition in four parts, Sept. to Dec. 2012; Italian edition in one book by Marvel - Panini Comics, "Marvel World 18," Sept. 2013, euros 4.30

The most genuine soul of comics: crazy, funny, splatter, heroic, clever and iconoclastic, fast and furious, based on a long tradition and unheard-of, superbly drawn, powerful, not too affectedly detailed as it often happens nowadays, with wonderful restylings of a lot of Marvel characters. Nor is it tagged as "off topic" because this is precisely what Renaissance poems, and all the more so Tasso's, wanted to achieve.

She, Armida (8)

[5: 31]

Argo non mai, non vide Cipro o Delo
D'habito e di beltà forme sì care:
D'auro ha la chioma, et hor dal bianco velo
Traluce involta, hor nuda al vento appare;
Così, qualhor si rasserena il cielo,
Hor da candida nube il sol traspare,
Hor da la nube uscendo, i raggi intorno
Più chiari spiega, e ne raddoppia il giorno.

Argos never saw, nor did Cyprus or Delos,
Such dear shapes of style and beauty:
Gold is her hair, and now through the white veil
It shines half-hidden, now bare in the wind;
So, as soon as the sky clears up,
Now the sun shows through a white cloud,
Now coming out of the cloud, it spreads
Brighter rays around, and doubles the day.

Friday, November 15, 2013

Dante, Lewis, and old-minded teenagers


Today, in the beautiful Italian town of Città della Pieve, Umbria, the Dante book has been presented to some hundred students from local high schools (15 to 18-year-olders). And for the first time, some of them had already read it after a suggestion by their Literature teacher.

From a sociological point of view, the most interesting phenomenon was our expectations being turned upside down: teachers (mostly women) did like the new fantasy keys suggested for interpreting the Divine Comedy, while several teenagers, especially girls, seemed to be 'upset' by those very keys. Maybe they did so just in order to contradict the lecturer, but the paradoxical result was that, by negating a negation, they reaffirmed the traditional interpretation, and therefore sounded 'older' than their 40-year-old teachers.

The lowest point was when a girl defined CS Lewis "a grandfather telling fairy tales to her little granddaughter." References to the University of Richmond's Milton List web discussions were needed to fix it.

She, Armida (7)

Torquato Tasso harbored ambivalent feelings for Armida, a symbol of evil and temptation, but also of beauty and of woman's independence and power, that was a newly rediscovered value in Renaissance (see in Ariosto's Orlando Furioso, very different from the role of women in Dante). Armida is, moreover, a character who concentrates in herself a very rich cultural texture: not only must she be able to compete against Ariosto's famous witch Alcina, but her words, as we will see, are full of quotes from the Divine Comedy.

One term will suffice to show this ambivalence. (a) In Gerusalemme Liberata, in the first verse of this octave Armida was simply called "la donzella," the young Lady; (b) in the manuscript of Gerusalemme Conquistata, here reported, Tasso even adds "alta donzella," a high, noble one; (c) but in the final printed version of GC, she will become the "empia - ungodly - donzella."

Also interesting is the reference to the natural phenomenon of comets, that quite often appears in Renaissance literature, and specifically in Tasso, as an ill omen.


Thursday, November 14, 2013

She, Armida (6)

[5: 30]

Dopo non molti dì l'alta donzella
Vien dove i Franchi alzate havean le tende;
A l'apparir de la beltà novella
Nasce un bisbiglio, e 'l guardo ognun v'intende,
Sì come là dove cometa o stella
Non veduta di giorno in ciel risplende;
E traggon tutti per saper chi sia
La nobil peregrina, e che desia.

Not many days later, the high young Lady
Comes where the Franks had built their tents.
At the appearance of such novel beauty,
A whispering rises, and all just look there,
Like when a comet or unseen-before
Star shines in the sky by day.
And they all flock to learn who
The noble pilgrim is -- what she may need.

This will deserve some comment more in depth (tomorrow).

Wednesday, November 13, 2013

She, Armida (5)

[5: 25]

D'altre sirene anchor le rive herbose
Altre figlie nudrîr tra suoni e canti,
Che tra i bei gigli e le purpuree rose
Prendean co 'l dolce sonno incauti amanti;
Ma questa le più belle e più famose
Vinse cantando, e più co' bei sembianti.
Con questa il vecchio mago i suoi consigli
Comparte, e vuol ch'ella il pensier ne pigli.

Those grassy banks hosted more daughters
Of other mermaids among sounds and songs,
Who among beautiful lilies and red roses
Caught unwary lovers with sweet sleep;
But this(*) beat the most beautiful and renowned
Thanks to her voice, and more, her fine features.
With her the old wizard now shares his
Mind, and asks her to see to it.


(*) Armida

Notes
"Lilies and roses" was a poetical phrase meaning the women's breast.
Armida is the daughter of a 'passing sailor' and a (mer)whore.

Tuesday, November 12, 2013

She, Armida (4)

[5: 24]

Di Babilonia entro l'eccelse mura,
In sen de l'ampio Eufrate ella già nacque
D'una sirena ch'in gentil figura
Il viso e 'l petto discopria da l'acque;
E cantando d'amor ne l'aria oscura
Mille amanti invaghì, cotanto piacque;
Né sola fu, ma placide sirene
Tante non hebber mai l'onde Thirrene.

Within the high walls of Babylon
She was born, in the wide Euphrates:
Born of a gentle-looking mermaid who used
To show face and breast out of the waves;
And by singing of love in the dark air,
She charmed a thousand lovers, so much she pleased.
Nor was she alone, for not so many placid
Mermaids inhabited the Tyrrhenian Sea.

Monday, November 11, 2013

Beauty Sleeping in a Dark Forest




Andrea Armati, Michela Pazzaglia, after Pierre Saintyves (Émile Nourry), La Bella Addormentata e le sue sorelle, Perugia, IT: Eleusi Edizioni, 2013, with 53 pictures, pages 132, euros 10; website www.eleusiedizioni.it

An intriguing study on the - literally - fairy tales of the Sleeping Beauty, Cinderella, and Red Riding Hood as modern reworkings of ancient seasonal cults. It also provides materials useful to set in a wider horizon some episodes in the works of Dante (e.g. the dark forest, Beatrice's chariot), Ariosto, Tasso, up to contemporary fantasy writers like CS Lewis.

She, Armida (3)

[5: 23]

Donna a cui di beltà le prime lodi
Concedea l'Orïente è sua nepote;
Gli accorgimenti e le più occulte frodi
Ch'usi femina o maga a lei son note,
E le vie più secrete e i dolci modi
Onde prendere al laccio il cor si pote;
Ma 'l nascer di costei tutte altre eccede
Le maraviglie, e trova antica fede.

A Lady to whose beauty the whole 
Orient granted the highest praise is his(*) niece.
To her are known all devices and the most
Secret frauds used by a woman or witch,
And the most hidden, and the sweetest ways
By which man's heart can be ensnared.
But her birth does any other marvel
Exceed -- trustworthy from old times.


(*) Hydraotes'

Notes
"Donna" = Latin Domina = Lady
"femina" = Latin foemina = (any) woman

Sunday, November 10, 2013

Sunday Trip: at the Stone Table


From: CS Lewis' The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe (The Chronicles of Narnia)

The quote: At that moment they heard from behind them a loud noise -- a great cracking, deafening noise as if a giant had broken a giant's plate.
"What's that?" said Lucy, clutching Susan's arm.

Drawing inspiration: Sentinel Hill in Dunwich; the Holy Shroud in Turin.

Saturday, November 9, 2013

She, Armida (2)

One of the devils sent by Satan to attack the Christian army makes the most clever move, as it will turn out: he 'inspires' a wizard called Hydraotes, who also happens to be the king of --- nice question: which city? In Gerusalemme Liberata it was about no less than Damascus. In the manuscript of Gerusalemme Conquistata, Tasso wrote Samosata (again in current Syria), then Sidon (in Lebanon), and finally Maraclea (on the coast; it would become a place ruled by the Knights Templar, then destroyed by the Mamluks in 1271).

Hydraotes has a niece called Armida. The original text says "nepote," "nipote" in nowadays Italian, that is a sadly equivocal term as it can mean both niece and granddaughter. In this case, circumstances lead to adopt the former solution.

The devil puts this project in the head of the wizard: Send the super-sexy Armida as a 'diversionary' among the Crusaders. And now one of the most fascinating episodes in Italian literature begins.

Thursday, November 7, 2013

What the hell (22)

A true Tassean / Baroque picture, with supernatural powers blending with natural phenomena in a choral action in which darkness, light, wind, sounds partake.

The link between supernatural powers and natural phenomena is a very ancient one. Tasso could draw on many literary sources, from the description of the 'living' winds in the Aeneid to Dante, Purgatorio 5: 109-123.

Moreover, the third verse in this GC octave includes a direct quote from Dante: "a riveder le stelle," to see the stars again, or "Thence we came forth to rebehold the stars" in the Longfellow translation. That is the very last verse in Dante's Inferno, so it acquires an ironic meaning here: both Dante and the devils come out of hell, but supposedly for very different reasons -- or not?

lineart by dhr
colors by Selkis

Wednesday, November 6, 2013

What the hell (21)

[5: 18]

Non aspettâr già l'alme a Dio rubbelle
Che fosser queste voci al fin condotte;
Ma fuor volando a riveder le stelle
Già se n'uscian da la profonda notte
Come sonanti e rapide procelle
Ch'arbori, tetti, navi e sparse e rotte,
E perturbando il mar, il ciel, la terra,
Natura han mossa e gli elementi in guerra.

Nor did the spirits, rebellious against God, wait for these words to be through. But, flying outside to see the stars again, they soon came out of the deep shadows like swift, noisy storms that, scattering and breaking trees and roofs and ships, and upsetting sea and sky and earth, move Nature and the elements to war.

Tuesday, November 5, 2013

Fantasy never dies

Dino Buzzati, I misteri d'Italia [The Mysteries of Italy], Milan: Oscar Mondadori, 2009, pages 220, euros 9.50

Dino Buzzati (1906-1972), writer, journalist, artist, of Medieval Hungarian origins (Buzàt from Buda-Pest) and whose mother was the last descendant of an important dynasty of Venetian Dogi, has been the most important Italian fantasy author of the 20th century. The fantasy genre pervades basically all of his production, from short stories to novels, from comics to paintings -- even his articles as a journalist, as it is shown by this collection of would-be news reports published in the mid-Sixties in Il Corriere della Sera, the most important Italian newspaper.

Here Buzzati describes a country that was just then becoming a so-called "rich" one, but kept old traditions inside. The tour among supernatural places includes this phenomenon in its broader sense: haunted houses, ghosts, mediums, apparitions of Virgin Mary, and UFOs which are a modern version of witchcraft (he says, possibly echoing Lovecraft?). Imagination continually mingles with 'real' personages like Federico Fellini and Gustavo Rol, and the two levels clarify each other.

What the hell (20)

Satan plans the counterattack against God, i.e., in this case, against the Crusaders, not Adam and Eve like in Milton's Paradise Lost. The actions described in this octave summarize a lot of events actually occurring in the next Cantos, though 'of course' things won't go exactly as Satan wishes them to.

The two most important successes for the devil will be the divisions breaking out among the Christian soldiers, sort of a micro civil war; and especially, the big troubles caused by the coming of the Muslim witch Armida to the camp -- who isn't strictly a Muslim, nor is she strictly a witch but something more, or something worse, or something better for those who love the fantasy genre. We will enjoy her company for a long time, immediately after the "what the hell" posts end in a couple of days.

Monday, November 4, 2013

What the hell (19)

[5: 17, Satan speaks]

Sia destin ciò ch'io voglio: altri disperso
Se 'n vada errando, altri rimanga ucciso,
Altri in cure d'amore lascive immerso
Idol si faccia un bello e chiaro viso.
Sia 'l ferro incontra il suo rettor converso
Da lo stuol ribellante e 'n sé diviso:
Schiere e cittadi e regni e 'l mondo tutto
Arda, affondi, consumi incendio e flutto -.

"Let my will become fate: let someone be wandering and missing, and someone be killed, and someone -- completely absorbed in lust -- have a beautiful, fair face as his idol. Let the swords be turned against their leader by rebellious and divided soldiers. Let troops and cities and kingdoms and the whole earth be burnt and submerged and consumed by fire and water!"

Sunday, November 3, 2013

Sunday Guest: the Witch's Army


From: CS Lewis' The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe (The Chronicles of Narnia)

The quote: "Call out the giants and the werewolves and the spirits of those trees who are on our side. Call the Ghouls and the Boggles, the Ogres and the Minotaurs. Call the Cruels, the Hags, the Spectres, and the people of the Toadstools. We will fight."

The precedent: Qui mille immonde Arpie son giunte, e mille
Centauri, e Sfingi, e pallide Gorgoni;
Latrâro i cani e le voraci Scille
E fischiâr Idre e sibilâr Pitoni;
E vomitâr Chimere atre faville,
E i Polifemi horrendi, e i Gerioni
. . .
"Furie, Mostri, Giganti, ognun si sforze
. . ."

__T. Tasso, Gerusalemme Conquistata 5: 5, 16

Saturday, November 2, 2013

What the hell (18)

Here the plot takes a turn that's completely different from Paradise Lost: in both GL and GC, Satan doesn't decide to go and destroy the righteous humankind on his own, even preventing the other devils from doing so, but he sends the hellish army. The role of the Tempter will anyway be soon played by the beautiful Lilith-like witch Armida, whose intervention in the war will in fact be 'suggested' by the devils. Later on in GC (not in GL), a huge and powerful devil called "Fortune," a mix of Satan and Poseidon, will take part in the battle of Jaffa.

Quite interesting is the psychological characterization of Satan in these lines. He asks the devils to spread everywhere the very fire he feels burning inside himself, but at the same time he doesn't want that fire to go out.

Friday, November 1, 2013

What the hell (17)

[5: 16, Satan speaks]

Ma perché più v'affreno o vi ritardo,
O miei consorti, o mia potentia e forze?
Itene pur (ché già il partirsi è tardo)
Furie, Mostri, Giganti, ognun si sforze.
Spargete il tosco e 'l foco ond'io pur ardo,
Ogn'altra fiamma che la mia s'ammorze:
Guerre e morti portate, e fame e peste,
Tenebre, horrori e turbini e tempeste.

"But why do I hold you back, or delay,
O my fellows, O my power and strength?
Go now (it's already late to leave indeed),
Furies, Monsters, Giants, do strive, all!
Spread the poison and fire burning me;
Any flame may go out, except my own.
Cause wars and deaths and hunger and plague,
Shadows, horrors, and whirlwinds and storms!"

Spawn © Todd McFarlane
fan art by dhr

Tasso : Epic = McFarlane : Comic Art