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Sunday, March 30, 2014

Sunday Guest: Puddleglum


From: CS Lewis' The Silver Chair (The Chronicles of Narnia)

The quote: "Well, I don't know that you'd call it help. I don't know that anyone can exactly help. It stands to reason we're not likely to get very far on a journey to the north, not at this time of the year, with the winter coming on soon and all. And an early winter too, by the look of things. But you mustn't let that make you down-hearted. Very likely, what with enemies, and mountains, and rivers to cross, and losing our way, and next to nothing to eat, and sore feet, we'll hardly notice the weather. And if we don't get far enough to do any good, we may get far enough not to get back in a hurry."

The guy: Puddleglum is one of the best character ever created by Lewis. And a true hero, in spite -- or rather, just because -- of the way he put things.

Friday, March 28, 2014

An offer you can't refuse (2)

[6: 14.1 - 15.2]

Però così rispose: - I gradi primi
Men conseguir che meritar desio;
Né, dove me la mia virtù sublimi,
Di scettri altezza invidïar degg'io.
Ma s'a l'honor m'inviti, il qual si stimi
Debito a me, non ci verrò restio;
E caro esser mi dee che sia dimostro
Sì bel segno da voi del voler vostro.

Dunque io no'l chiedo e no 'l rifiuto, e quando
Duce io pur sia, sarai de gli altri eletti -.


Therefore Richard answered, "I want to deserve the highest grades, rather than getting them; even if my own valor were to exalt me, I shouldn't envy the power of scepters. But if you are calling me to an honor that may be due to me, I won't be reluctant. And it cannot but be dear to me that you all show such a fine sign of your will. So, I don't ask for it, nor do I refuse it. And yes, if I become the Captain, you will be among the [men] chosen [to follow Armida]."

Throughout the poem, and in the Conquistata version even more than in the Liberata, Tasso tries to achieve a difficult balance between the values of chivalry and the Christian values, basically between Norse pride and Gospel humbleness. In Ludovico Ariosto the former values were the ruling ones, while the latter only surfaced on some occasions, and often as a mockery, but Tasso is as sincerely a Christian as a fan of classical epic, so his attempt is a definitely hard one.
Verse 14.7, "E caro esser mi dee," ironically echoes Dante, Inferno 32: 91. Not many lines below, at 122, Dante will mention Ganelon, the traitor of Charlemagne.

Thursday, March 27, 2014

Animal Farm-Stasi

Web source reworked by Selkis

Some fantasy elements, in the broadest sense, can be found in George Orwell's Animal Farm, starting from the subtitle: "A fairy story." The wittiest fantasy episode is possibly in ch. 7, when the regime's ideology succeeds in convincing the animals that the cause of all their troubles is the 'treacherous' pig Snowball, to the extent that he is even likened to a . . .  vampire: "The cows declared unanimously that Snowball crept into their stalls and milked them in their sleep."
In ch. 8, the Leader Napoleon's trumpeter appears, and it is a "black cockerel," a beast often associated to the devil in the Middle Ages. A demonic reference possibly surfaced already in ch. 5, when "the skull of old Major, now clean of flesh, had been disinterred from the orchard and set up on a stump at the foot of the flagstaff," which recalls William Golding's Lord of the Flies, that is etymologically "Beelzebub," published a decade later.
When the horse Boxer was seriously injured, the mare "Clover treated the hoof with poultices of herbs which she prepared by chewing them," like a witch, or more precisely, a traditional she-healer.
The final pages, showing the ruling pigs who walk on their hind legs, and eventually change their snouts into human faces, overturns the whole literary history of metamorphoses, from Ovid and Apuleius to Dante, to Kafka and CS Lewis, while echoing EG Wells' Island of Dr. Moreau.

Wednesday, March 26, 2014

God, the Will Smith

Augustine, St., On Free Choice of the Will [orig. title: De Libero Arbitrio], superbly translated by Thomas Williams, Indianapolis: Hackett, 1993, pages xxi + 130

Augustine, as usual, catches the reader's attention with his deep insights, his culture, his acumen, his logical paradoxes and -- why not -- his humor, as well as with the true shocks he can create in a 21st century audience. Having to deal with an apparently specific topic, he cannot do so without setting it within a wider context, including anthropology at large, therefore Nature and the universe, angels included, therefore creation and the history of salvation starting from Adam, therefore God!

The general impression is that, nowadays, this book would much more easily understood by a traditional Hindu than by an "updated" Christian. In fact, not only Augustine's ideas but his whole worldview are hard to grasp, and even harder to accept, without being fully immersed in a vision of cosmic justice (dharma) and order (ṛta).

As to the authors to whom this blog is mainly devoted, Torquato Tasso surely drew many things from Augustine, as it was obvious, but the impact with his works is quite different. While surely De Libero Arbitrio influenced CS Lewis much, both for working out essays like A Preface to Paradise Lost and for the role of Aslan in The Chronicles of Narnia. Daresay that, on certain issues, Lewis' explanations are even better than Augustine's, though, vice versa, De Libero Arbitrio may have suggested the less convincing episode in all Chronicles, i.e. the reason of Aslan's sacrifice in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe.

Tuesday, March 25, 2014

An offer you can't refuse (1)

[6: 13]

Ben altamente è nel pensier tenace
La morte di [ . . . ] quasi scolpita,
E si reca a disnor ch'Argante audace
Rimanga ancora lunga stagione in vita;
E parte d'ascoltare anco gli piace
Quel parlare ch'al dovuto honor l'invita;
E 'l giovenetto cor s'appaga, e gode
al dolce suon de la verace lode.

***'s death is like deeply sculpted in Richard's determined mind, and he considers it dishonorable for himself that the bold Argantes should outlive it so long. Meanwhile, he likes to listen to those words [of Eustace's] inviting him to his due honor; and his young heart feels gratified, enjoying the sweet sound of a deserved praise.

In the manuscript of Gerusalemme Conquistata [the text we are following for these translations] Tasso didn't choose between "Guidon" and "Ruggier" for the name of the Captain of the Christian mercenary troops who has been killed by the Muslim knight Argantes; the final version will be Guidon[e], i.e. Guido. But the choice of "Ruggier[o]" would have been more interesting because, by doing so, Tasso would have the hero of Gerusalemme Liberata killed at the very beginning of the Conquistata, sort of a symbol of the passage from the old story to the new one like in Sergio Leone's 1967 movie C'era una volta il West (Once Upon a Time in the West). Anyway, it won't be up to Richard to kill Argantes in the end.

Sunday, March 23, 2014

Sunday Guest: Glimfeather


From: CS Lewis' The Silver Chair (The Chronicles of Narnia)

The quote: "Hush, hush! Tu-whoo, tu-whoo," said the Owl. "Don't make a noise. Now, are you two really in earnest about what you've got to do?"
"About the lost Prince, you mean?" said Jill. "Yes, we've got to be."

Saturday, March 22, 2014

Hip Hop Ape Hope


The most recent Tarzan is another movie that -- at least on the basis of what one could read and see -- would deserve more attention and appreciation. The plot starts from Edgar Rice Burrough's original story, but reinterpret it by stressing the teenager side, and adding a sci-fi element that draws both on Burrough's own novels in that genre and on James Cameron's Avatar.

Friday, March 21, 2014

Gelosia, mi acceca mi uccide (2)

Eustace is ironically termed "sly" and "cunning" the very moment he shows he is not. His stock exchange: "I, the influential brother of Godfrey, will help you, Richard, become the new chief of the mercenary troops, and you will let me follow Armida in this enterprise" is ridiculous, and worse than that, for a number of reasons:

1. Richard, who is not a fool, will immediately understand his clumsy try.

2. Eustace, like many others 'blinded by love,' can't see how dangerous Armida is; her request is a trap, she is not only a witch (like in Gerusalemme Liberata), she is not even human (a hybrid between a man and a mermaid).

3. Eustace doesn't know, nor do we at this point yet, that Richard (unlike Rinaldo in Gerusalemme Liberata) is mainly gay, so he is not specifically interested in escorting Armida.

4. And nonetheless the handsome and valiant Richard, not Eustace, will have a bed story with her.

5. Richard accepts Eustace's pact and will get that role, but precisely this will cause a lot of troubles, so much so that the success of the whole Crusade will be jeopardized.

All this clearly shows, incidentally, that the great epic poems were built so as to be fully appreciated only on second, or third, etc., reading, though very enjoyable from the start.

Interesting is also the process of psychological operations as described here with reference to Eustace: (a) a deep, irrational feeling arises [jealousy in this case], which (b) inspires (c) the heart, conceived as the center of decisions, and just then (d) thoughts proper are formed.

Tuesday, March 18, 2014

Gelosia, mi acceca mi uccide (1)

In the end, Godfrey calls the mercenary troops and tells them that they must give themselves a new chief in replacement of the former one who has been killed in battle; and he will choose the ten men who will go with Armida in order to help her regain her own (supposedly) usurped city . . .  [6: 8]

Ma 'l giovenetto Eustatio, il qual rimira
Con gelosi occhi il figlio di Lucia,
La cui virtute invidïando ammira
Ch'in sì bel corpo più cara venia,
No 'l vorrebbe compagno, e al cor gli inspira
Cauti pensier l'astuta gelosia.
Onde tratto il guerrier lunge e 'n disparte,
Ragiona a lui con lusinghevol arte:
[ . . . ]

But the young Eustace, (*) who furtively, with jealous eyes looks at Lucy's son, (**) whose valour(***) -- all the more liked in a beautiful body -- he admires while envying it, would prefer not to have him in the group; and sly jealousy inspires his heart with cunning thoughts. So, after having drawn the warrior aside, Eustace speaks to him with flattering words . . .

(*) Godfrey's lesser brother
(**) Richard the Norman
(***) "virtue" in its older sense, from Latin virtus

Monday, March 17, 2014

Tassean poetry of the 21st century

Sergio Gallo, Pharmakon, Pasturana (AL, Italy): puntoacapo, 2014, pages 196, euros 18

Se il Corpo di Cristo è farmaco di immortalità, la poesia vera (non quella della domenica) è semplicemente pharmakon, che significa medicina e veleno. Sergio Gallo è un 46enne poeta piemontese di enorme talento, che nella propria “farmacia” sintetizza composti di paesaggi romantici, terminologia biologica e tecnica, citazioni colte, extra-ordinari ricordi personali, defecazioni, urla. Sotto il velo della bellezza della Natura, una carnalità spietata. Parla di pesca alla trota, di escursioni montane, di religione, di sesso e di cancro. Come i veri poeti (non quelli della domenica), scrive le proprie opere a ritmo discontinuo, spesso nelle condizioni meno favorevoli, come facevano addirittura i grandissimi: Dante, Ariosto, Camões, Tasso, Milton, Leopardi… fino a Ungaretti e Saba. Come i veri poeti (non quelli della domenica, costantemente uniformi e inutili) raggiunge picchi di energia, poi magari si distrae, stiracchia i versi, e perfino – orrore! – infila qualche luogo comune, poi riprende il volo ti fa vedere chi è. E non sempre è un bello spettacolo.
. . .
gridi poi d'esser sepolto
tu, Oigres Ollag
settimino
per parto cesareo,
concepito
senza l'orifizio anale!

Un'eccessiva stimolazione vagale
ha alterato il controllo
dei muscoli della voce
e dell'intonazione

di ritmo cardiaco, peristalsi e sudorazione.
Ha portato l'intero organismo
a oltrepassare
la soglia di non ritorno.

Sunday, March 16, 2014

Sunday Trip: at the Very End of the World


From: CS Lewis' The Voyage of the Dawn Treader (The Chronicles of Narnia)

The quote: As the sun rose, the sight of those mountains outside the world faded away. The wave remained but there was only blue sky behind it.

Theory and practice: Lewis -- like Lovecraft before him -- is happily inconsistent with his own literary teachings: "A reader . . .  would prefer something he had not expected. But the unexpected has here no place." (A Preface to Paradise Lost, ch. 7)

Saturday, March 15, 2014

The Italian Master of Fantasy Art

Il maestro italiano dell'illustrazione fantasy realizza il suo capolavoro in un'opera che, a rigore, fantasy non è ma appartiene al patrimonio religioso cristiano “canonico” (cioè dogmatico): l'Apocalisse. Infischiandosene delle dotte esegesi e dei significati simbolici dell'opera, Paolo Barbieri prende alcuni versetti a effetto del testo biblico e li fa esplodere in una fantasmagoria di luci, ombre, colori, elementi naturali scatenati, donne, bestie, bellezza greca e deformità wayne-barlowiana. Ritornano i suoi temi di sempre: draghi, guerriere sexy, paesaggi incantati, stregoneria, mitologia, ibridi, ma il tutto modernizzato e reso in forma estrema, eccessiva, come uno sfogo, un urlo, un “al diavolo tutto!” – alla lettera.

Il risultato è ancora più sconvolgente e coinvolgente dell'altro recente libro di Barbieri dedicato all'Inferno di Dante; e la cosa pare voluta, perché tra le scene apocalittiche ammicca anche un ritratto del Sommo Poeta. Le Forze del Male sono rese in forma smagliante, e le Forze del Bene non hanno nulla di devozionale. La Madonna gravida di Luce, senza assolutamente essere dissacrante, è però espressione di un Sacro mai visto prima (tant'è vero che il nipote 14enne che ha scelto questo libro come regalo per il mio compleanno manco immaginava che questa Apocalisse derivasse dal Nuovo Testamento). L'Anticristo ha una scioccante rassomiglianza con il Cristo, ma allo stesso tempo è l'unico personaggio realmente repulsivo dell'intero libro.

In fondo, l'unica vera catastrofe è... che Barbieri sia italiano e non americano, altrimenti avrebbe una fama infinitamente superiore a quella che già ha. Suggerimenti per il futuro? Illustrare il Paradiso perduto di Milton. Sarebbe da non perdere.

Friday, March 14, 2014

Summary of the previous episodes

[6: 1]

Mentre in tal guisa i cavalieri alletta
Ne l'amor suo l'insidïosa Armida,
Né solo i diece a lei promessi aspetta
Ma di seco menarne altri confida,
Volge tra sé Goffredo a qual commetta
La dubbia impresa più secura guida;
Ché di tanti guerrier la copia e 'l merto
E 'l desir di ciascuno il fanno incerto. 

While the insidious Armida allures the knights with the bonds of her love like that, expecting to drag not only the ten who have been promised to her [as an aid] but others too, Godfrey ponders on whom to choose as the best leader for that dubious enterprise, for the number and merits of so many warriors, as well as the desire of all of them, make him hesitate.

Tuesday, March 11, 2014

Leopardian Interlude (9)

[Giacomo Leopardi's Dialogue between Torquato Tasso and His Home Genius, 1824; follows]


GENIUS   You'll see this habit being confirmed and growing day by day to the extent that, when you can live among your fellow humans once again, it will seem to you to be more unoccupied with them than on your own. And don't think that hardening in this type of lifestyle only occurs to people like you, the ones used to meditating; in fact it happens, sooner or later, to anybody. Moreover, being divided from humankind and, so to speak, from life itself entails a certain usefulness. That is, that a man, even sated, disillusioned, and disaffected towards human beings out of experience, now by getting used, little by little, to watching them from afar -- where they look much more beautiful and praiseworthy than closely -- forgets their vanity and meanness, and he begins to shape and almost create the world according to his whims.(*)  He once again begins to like, love, and long for life, feeding on the hopes it offers, and enjoying in them, as he used to when he was younger -- unless he is left without any opportunity or hope of joining society. So, loneliness almost works as youth, or anyway it rejuvenates the soul, it strengthens and stirs imagination, and it renews, even in an experienced man, the benefits of his former inexperience, as you do long for.

Now I must leave, for I see Sleep coming. I go prepare the dream I promised you. So, you will keep consuming your existence between dreaming and daydreaming, with no other usefulness than consuming it, since this is the only fruit one can get of it on earth, and the only purpose you all should set for yourself each morning after waking up. Very often, you must drag it with your teeth: may that blessed day come, when you can pull it with your hands, or carry it on your backs. Anyway, your time in this prison doesn't pass more slowly than in the halls and gardens of those who oppress you. Farewell!

TASSO   Farewell. But, wait: talking to you comforts me greatly. Not that it can delete my sadness, which, most of the time, is like an absolutely dark night with no moon or stars; but when you are with me, it looks like the half-darkness of twilight, more pleasant than annoying. In order to allow me to call or find you when I need you, please tell me where you usually dwell.

GENIUS   Haven't you understood it yet? In some good wine.(**)

- The End -


(*) Possibly, a reference to Il Mondo Creato.
(**) Tasso used to drink a lot.

Monday, March 10, 2014

Starting on the right foot

Just started reading a book belonging to the best category ever: a genius explained by a genius (cf. recently in this blog, Leopardi about Tasso). Namely, CS Lewis' Preface to Paradise Lost. And immediately after the author's Dedication to Charles Williams, a quotation follows:

. . .  innumerabili immortali
Disegualmente in lor letizia eguali

. . .  numberless immortal beings
Differently equal in their joy

obviously referring to angels, and taken from no less than our friend Torquato Tasso, Gerusalemme Liberata (Jerusalem Delivered) 9: 57. The book definitely starts on the right foot ^__^

Sunday, March 9, 2014

A sudden thought

Nazis did win WWII, and the result is ---------
us:
Nuclear weapons,
medical research without ethics,
one car (or more!) per family*,
crazy funding for technology,
and much of this with the exploitation of
workers of "inferior races" or at least "less important countries" . . .

* that was the original project of Wolkswagen, i.e. "Cars for the people," namely the Käfer / Beetle / Maggiolino

Sunday Guest: the Sea People


From: CS Lewis' The Voyage of the Dawn Treader (The Chronicles of Narnia)

The quote: "It'll never do for the sailors to see all that," said Drinian. "We'll have men falling in love with a sea-woman, or falling in love with the undersea country itself, and jumping overboard."

The exception: The only expressly sexy episode in the Chronicles, given the audiences they were prima facie addressed to. A refined eroticism had pervaded the whole of Lewis' novel Perelandra, not only because of the nakedness of the Venusian Eve, but because the whole geography of the place was definitely Freudian.

Saturday, March 8, 2014

The Italian Nietzsche (26)

X.

. . .  There are two types of people who have silence as their law: mystics and the absolute lovers of intact details. Those who have really known God and those who have really known reality could not write about it; they not even thought it might be possible to do so, and their names will remain unknown forever. The mystics and metaphysics we have heard of are those who stood on the threshold, and since they did not see, they could tell.  . . .

__Giovanni Papini, L'altra metà (1911), 4: Otherness

Friday, March 7, 2014

Leopardian Interlude (8)

[Giacomo Leopardi's Dialogue between Torquato Tasso and His Home Genius, 1824; follows]


TASSO   If this is the medicine, I will be content with being bored all my life.(*) And yet, the variety of activities, of business and feelings, even without freeing us from boredom because it doesn't bring true joys, can anyway make it a bit lighter. But in this prison, far from any relationship with my fellow humans, even unable to write anything, (**) being reduced to pass time paying attention to the clock beating, and numbering the ceiling beams, the cracks, the woodworms, and gazing at the brick floor, and playing with the butterflies and gnats flying across the room, and spending almost all hours in the same way . . .  I have nothing helping me to diminish the weight of boredom.

GENIUS   Tell me, for how much time have you been reduced to this lifestyle?

TASSO  Several weeks, you know this.

GENIUS    From the first day up until now, haven't you noticed any difference in the annoyance of it?

TASSO   Sure, it was greater in the beginning. Now, little by little, my mind -- with no other occupation and no recreation -- is getting more and more used to talking to itself, and more amused by it than before. It is acquiring the habit and virtue of speaking to itself, jabbering indeed, so that so that I often think there's a group of people having a conversation in my head, and any slightest topic presenting itself to my thought suffices to create a big discussion within myself.

. . .  to be continued . . .

(*) This sentence may have been inserted by Leopardi to prevent censorship.
(**) During the first months, possibly the first whole year, in which he was there.

Wednesday, March 5, 2014

The House of the Living Heroes




Comics: again, the best, truest heirs of Renaissance grand poetry. American comics especially, super-heroes and the like. Science fiction, first of all. The first Iron Man has been Tasso's knight Richard in Gerusalemme Conquistata (in the former version, Gerusalemme Liberata, it was 'only' about a classic enchanted armor). In the field of fantasy, although Ariosto's Orlando Furioso included many more materials, Tasso created much more modern horror atmospheres, reworking the ancient lore in a heroic, but also sad, tragic key. American comics besides -- like Renaissance poetry, and unlike most contemporary literature -- know how to tell and retell the "evergreen myths" in always new and stimulating ways.




Scott Snyder (story), Manuel Garcia (art, with Lorenzo Ruggiero and Marta Martinez), Marvel Noir: Iron Man, Panini Comics, 2011

Mike Mignola (story), Richard Corben (art, with Dave Stewart), Hellboy: La casa dei morti viventi, orig. title Hellboy: The House of the Living Dead, Magic Press, 2012

Tuesday, March 4, 2014

Where did (Dante and) Tasso get the books?


Leopardian Interlude (7)

[Giacomo Leopardi's Dialogue between Torquato Tasso and His Home Genius, 1824; follows]


TASSO   In this case I have enough experience to reply, to be sure. I would say that boredom is like the air, that fills all spaces left between material things as well as any empty room in them; whenever a body shifts, and no other replaces it, the air immediately takes its place. So, in human life, all intervals between pleasures and sorrows are occupied by boredom. Therefore, as -- according to Aristotle's followers -- no empty place is left among natural things, there is no void in our lives; except when our minds, for whatever reason, interrupt the use of thought. For the whole remaining time, the soul, also considered in itself with no connection to the body, must necessarily contain some passion, because being devoid of all pleasures and sorrows entails being full of boredom, which also is a passion just like pains and joys . . .

GENIUS   . . .  And since all your joys are made of a material similar to spiderwebs, most thin, and rare, and transparent, boredom from everywhere penetrates and fills the former as well as the latter. I honestly think that by "boredom" we should mean the bare desire for happiness, when it is neither satisfied with pleasure nor openly wounded by sorrow. And this desire, as we just said, is never fulfilled; and pleasure proper can be found nowhere. So that human life, so to speak, is made and woven partly with pain, partly with boredom; and it can have no rest from either except by falling into the other. And this destiny is not yours in particular, but common to the whole humankind.

TASSO   Which remedies could help us against boredom?

GENIUS   Sleep, opium, and pain. And the third of them is the most powerful of all as men, while suffering, cannot absolutely get bored.

. . . to be continued . . .

Monday, March 3, 2014

The Cabinet of Doctor Alighieri





Donatella Lippi (ed.), Dante Alighieri: La Divina Commedia, 3 volumes, Fidenza, IT: Mattioli1885, 2009-2010, with a selection of Gustave Dore's illustrations, pages 222 (Inferno), 224 (Purgatorio), 242 (Paradiso), euros 30 each

The Divine Comedy interpreted according to its medical contents is the refreshing enterprise by Dr. Donatella Lippi, Professor of History of Medicine at the University of Florence; one more demonstration of the fact that Dante proves much more interesting when he is studied from un-usual standpoints.

The books provide two types of materials: (a) The notes to the text, highlighting any reference in Dante's verses to medicine or health in general, his sources, his 'treatment' of human disease, etc.; (b) The Introductions, focusing on a specific issue for each part of the poem: pain and sorrow in Inferno, music in Purgatorio -- the most intriguing pages, imho -- and light in Paradiso, plus the respective medical approaches, namely analgesia, music therapy, heliotherapy and phototherapy. Since the post-Medieval developments are taken into consideration, readers can find many data about Renaissance too.

Just one addition. In Inferno, Canto 33 the phenomenon of lycanthropy is described, mixing medicine and fantasy literature: Count Ugolino constantly gazes at the moon, he dreams he is a wolf, his eyes are frightening, he is likened to a dog, and he is obsessed with eating human flesh.

Sunday, March 2, 2014

Sunday Guest: Ramandu


From: CS Lewis' The Voyage of the Dawn Treader (The Chronicles of Narnia)

The quote: "And are we near the World's End now, Sir?" asked Caspian. "Have you any knowledge of the seas and lands further east than this?"
"I saw them long ago," said the Old Man, "but it was from a great height. I cannot tell you such things as sailors need to know."
"Do you mean you were flying in the air?" Eustace blurted out.
"I was a long way above the air, my son," replied the Old Man. "I am Ramandu. But I see that you stare at one another and have not heard this name. And no wonder, for the days when I was a star had ceased long before any of you knew this world, and all the constellations have changed."
"Golly," said Edmund under his breath. "He's a retired star."

Daresay: This is one of the most brilliant dialogues in the history of Western Literature.

Saturday, March 1, 2014

In Hoc Signo Vinces


Another "Tassean" success! Eva/Nivalis has just been honored with the Daily Deviation heads-up by the DeviantArt community for the Serpent she painted to illustrate one of the episodes of Jerusalem Delivered that have been published in the US anthology Emanations: Third Eye. Yay! Tasso's description of the beast was the main source of inspiration for Milton's Serpent in Paradise Lost.

The Italian Nietzsche (25)

IV.

Choice is the basic pattern of human activity -- especially with reference to knowledge. By this, man once more reveals himself to be the antithesis of God, Who accepts everything, welcomes everything, includes everything in Himself.

__Giovanni Papini, L'altra metà (1911), 4: Otherness